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HOUSE SJ / STAARC ingenieurs en architecten

first_imgArchDaily Area:  180 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Houses CopyAbout this officeSTAARC ingenieurs en architectenOfficeFollowProductsWoodBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesInterior DesignResidential InteriorsHouse InteriorsBelgiumPublished on February 01, 2019Cite: “HOUSE SJ / STAARC ingenieurs en architecten” 01 Feb 2019. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPartitionsSkyfoldChoosing the Skyfold Wall for Your SpaceGlass3MSun Control Window Film in MarkthalBathroom AccessorieshansgroheBath & Shower ThermostatsCabinetsFlorenseCabinet – FloAirWood Boards / HPL PanelsBruagStair Railing – CELLON®LightsLouis PoulsenOutdoor Lighting – Flindt GardenBathroom AccessoriesBradley Corporation USAHigh Speed Hand Dryers – Aerix+BoardsForestOneLaminate – EGGER laminatesAcousticSchöckStaircase Insulation – Tronsole®Metal PanelsRHEINZINKPanel Systems – Horizontal PanelWall / Ceiling LightsA-LightAccolade Wall Light at River Dental OfficeBricksStröherClinker Brick Slips – StiltreuMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Photographs:  Bram Tack Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project HOUSE SJ / STAARC ingenieurs en architectenSave this projectSaveHOUSE SJ / STAARC ingenieurs en architecten 2017 Save this picture!© Bram TackRecommended ProductsStonesCosentinoSurfaces – Prexury®WindowsC.R. LaurenceCRL-U.S. Aluminum Unit-Glaze SystemWindowsSky-FrameRetractable Insect Screen – Sky-Frame FlyWindowsAir-LuxSliding Window – CurvedAffordable, yet energy-efficient at the same timeTo provide a young family with a compact and affordable home, while in the process paying a great deal of attention to making it energy efficient, was the task facing the Staarc architects. The solution: creating a dynamic home wherein the dominant note is sounded by unobstructed, wide-open space and with a clear view of the rural surroundings.Save this picture!© Bram TackSave this picture!First floor planSave this picture!© Bram TackSJ HomeIn order to create this sense of unrestricted openness and a feeling of all-round breathing space, all rooms inside this home are concentrated around an open area. This not only provides a wide-open view but furthermore promotes and facilitates interaction amongst the home occupants. In addition, the traditional boundaries that normally separate the different floors are being blurred through the introduction of split-levels.Save this picture!© Bram TackIn order to make this home future-proof, the architect and homeowner devoted a great deal of attention to the insulation, with a focus on air sealing and air tightness. Furthermore, the heating system is operated by means of an air-to-water heat pump that is connected to the floor heating. And, as a final touch, the use of solar panels provides the assurance that this is, indeed, a fully energy-efficient home (with an energy efficiency value of 18).Save this picture!© Bram TackSave this picture!Longitudinal SectionSave this picture!© Bram Tack Central to the home’s architectural design is the open space which connects all rooms with each other and via large windows admits plenty of natural daylight. Note the floor in poly-concrete, which creates an industrial but, nonetheless, homey atmosphere. The introduction of split-levels ensures that the living spaces receive higher ceilings and that the interaction with the other rooms is enlarged. Besides the ground-level floor, likewise, all ceilings are constructed out of concrete. This home is characterised by the simple materials used in its construction, with the main emphasis, aside from concrete, placed on wood and red facing brickwork. By varying the position of the facing brickwork pattern between the horizontal and the vertical, the architect managed to introduce a light-hearted touch to the whole structure. Inside and around the bedrooms, the wooden floorboards inspire a feeling of cozy warmth. The wide-open space is maintained up to the roof apex. The owners selected a subtle, yet character-filled green colour for the bathroom fittings. This is not only evident in the bathroom tiles but recurs also elsewhere in the home, notably in the kitchen installations and furnishings. Save this picture!© Bram TackProject gallerySee allShow lessFrank Gehry: “Take the Chance to Jump Off Into the Unknown”Architecture NewsGiancarlo Mazzanti develops Architectural Toy Series inspired by Bogota PavilionArticles Share Projects Save this picture!© Bram Tack+ 23Curated by Paula Pintos Share Lead Architects: “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/910635/house-sj-staarc-ingenieurs-en-architecten Clipboard Architects: STAARC ingenieurs en architecten Area Area of this architecture project Photographs Belgium Manufacturers: Aliplast, Bomarbre, Wienerberger, Thermowood Year:  HOUSE SJ / STAARC ingenieurs en architecten CopyHouses, Houses Interiors•Belgium ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/910635/house-sj-staarc-ingenieurs-en-architecten Clipboard “COPY” Lore Verheyleweghen, Jan Vanderstraetenlast_img read more

Two thirds of trusts to maintain or increase income, say ACF

first_img Howard Lake | 8 June 2009 | News  27 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Finance Funding recession Research / statistics Two thirds of trusts to maintain or increase income, say ACF Two thirds of UK-based trusts and foundations are planning to maintain or increase their level of grantmaking, according to a survey by the Association of Charitable Foundations.The survey found that nearly 75% of UK-based trusts and foundations are predicting steady or rising income levels over the longer term.David Emerson, ACF Chief Executive, said: “Trusts and foundations exercise very prudent financial controls and plan for the long term, and it is clear that this has enabled many of them to lessen the impact of the downturn. Advertisementcenter_img “Steps taken included reducing reliance on equities prior to the recession, and increasing investments overseas – which has led some to report a rise in income due to the weaker pound.”Members of the Association of Charitable Foundations manage well over £30 billion in investments and provide about 10% of the annual income for the voluntary sector.For this year, 36% of ACF members expect to maintain current levels of grantmaking, with 9% increasing these levels. Fifteen per cent anticipate higher grantmaking in 2010, and 38% plan to increase grantmaking over the longer term.However, some respondents did indicate they would make changes to their grantmaking next year: 44% said they were likely to give fewer grants, 27% believed their grants will be smaller, and 23% thought that they will be given over shorter periods.www.acf.org.uk AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

The feelgood factor – lessons from psychology

first_imgPeople giving for the first time were told that someone else had just given either $75, $180 or $300 against a control group who were not given this information. Those told of the gift gave significantly more than those who were not.However, there are cut off points beyond which people lose the incentive to keep up with the Joneses. In one test, the control gift was $121, those who were told a gift of $500 had been given gave an average of $172, but those who were told a gift of $1,000 had been given only gave an average of $146.Matching the gender of the previous donor with the one calling also increased the gift by around 30 per cent.Looking at it from the ‘moral’ point of view produced interesting results. Using words such as ‘generous’, ‘caring’, ‘caring’ made more than 10 per cent difference to the amount given by women – but none at all to the gift from men.We tend to use this sort of language in thank you letters, Sargeant said. “But this is too late. We should be using it just at the point we are asking them to give.” The feelgood factor – lessons from psychology Howard Lake | 8 July 2009 | News We can take lessons from psychology and use them to improve levels of giving in a way that makes people feel better about offering support to our organisations.In a session at the Institute of Fundraising National Convention, Adrian Sargeant told delegates how research had shown that different ‘social information’ can incentivise people to give more.The research was carried out with public radio stations in the US. It tested different approaches to donors who were ringing in to pledge support (rather akin to the Children in Need appeal in the UK on BBC radio stations). Advertisement About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.center_img  13 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Research / statistics AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThislast_img read more

Indiana Farm Bureau Continues Promoting Two Key Ag Bills

first_img Facebook Twitter Facebook Twitter Indiana Farm Bureau Continues Promoting Two Key Ag Bills SHARE By Andy Eubank – Mar 27, 2019 SHARE Previous articleReport: 55% of Corn Acres Face Potential FloodingNext articleIndiana Corn Groups Looking for Farmers to Serve on Board of Directors Andy Eubank INFB-legislative-updateThe Indiana Senate bill to reduce extraterritorial jurisdiction of cities and towns, SB535 authored by Senator Phil Boots of Crawfordsville was heard in committee last week, according to Katrina Hall with Indiana Farm Bureau, which is a strong supporter of the bill. The bill would address to what extent municipalities can control areas not in their boundaries.“Some really old laws allow them to do that four miles out, or even ten miles out, so we’re working to curb that and pull that back so that it’s a very clear distinction that folks outside of a municipality are really only under the regulatory scheme of a county,” Hall told HAT. “That’s really important and we’ve got a lot of momentum on that issue. We’re waiting to vote it out of the senate local government committee. We’re pretty confident that it’s got a good story.”The bill that quite possibly has seen the most negotiation this session is HB1270 which seeks to restore the Kankakee and Yellow Rivers through an improved oversight mechanism. The bill is authored by Rep. Doug Gutwein of Francesville.“A year ago when we had a lot of rain, many areas of those counties were under water for extended periods of time, so we want to try to get that alleviated so that farmers don’t have to deal with that,” she said. “And it isn’t just farmers, it’s other citizens as well. This is a comprehensive piece of legislation that includes a lot of collaboration for over eight counties. That’s been a challenge, but we’ve put a lot of effort into that over that last twelve months.”Hall said they’re currently contemplating some amendments to that bill. Home Indiana Agriculture News Indiana Farm Bureau Continues Promoting Two Key Ag Billslast_img read more

Alexandra Chan Roars At Lions Club Speakers Contest

first_imgEVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS 8 recommendedShareShareTweetSharePin it Business News faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Donald CommunityPCC- COMMUNITYVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Make a comment Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Community News Seventeen-year-old Alexandra Chan won the introduction level of the 82nd Annual Student Speakers Contest Feb. 12.The contest was hosted by the Pasadena Host Lions Club at The Salvation Army Tabernacle’ Fellowship Hall.The annual contest is a tradition of Multiple District Four (MD-4) California Lions Clubs International. This year’s contest topic was, “Freedom of the Press: What does it Mean?”Chan competed with three other Pasadena-area high-schoolers, and spoke about her rich history of living in two worlds – in China, with restrictions on the internet coined the “great firewall,” and in America, where media can be harmfully untrue, but at least gives the citizen a chance to hear from multiple sources.“I am thankful for the opportunity to speak on an issue so topical and vital to our current political realm,” Chan said. “I’m also grateful for Lions Club International’s consistent dedication to providing educational opportunities and shaping the leaders of tomorrow.”The other speakers in the club level contest were: Sylvia Wang, 15, who spoke of her parent’s experience working for a newspaper publication in China and the repercussions of speaking against their government; Tosten Pearson, 15, who stated that an alternative fact is 70 percent more likely to be shared on social media versus a verified fact; and Charles Dowell, 18, who focused on how the people need to understand their “media diet” of the new sources and the implications of reading biased reports.Pasadena Host Lions Club said the contest provides an opportunity for competitive public speaking among students on a subject of vital interest to the American people. The Lions Clubs encourage self-expression and independent thinking, and through the student speakers contest present to the public the intricacies of keeping the United States as a free nation.Chan will compete with other tournament winners in the region on March 9, 9 a.m., at the Pasadena Salvation Army Tabernacle, at 960 East Walnut Street. The six-level contest will continue into the spring. Top of the News center_img Herbeauty6 Trends To Look Like A Bombshell And 6 To Forget AboutHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyAmazing Sparks Of On-Screen Chemistry From The 90-sHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty11 Signs Your Perfectionism Has Gotten Out Of ControlHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyInstall These Measures To Keep Your Household Safe From Covid19HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Of The Best Family Friendly Dog BreedsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyStop Eating Read Meat (Before It’s Too Late)HerbeautyHerbeauty Community News Alexandra Chan Roars At Lions Club Speakers Contest By ANDY VITALICIO with Kerstin Brucki | Photography by JAMES CARBONE Published on Wednesday, February 13, 2019 | 6:29 pm Subscribe More Cool Stuff Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Community News First Heatwave Expected Next Week Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

The Latest: China’s northeast outbreaks appear under control

first_imgLocal NewsBusinessUS News Pinterest WhatsApp Pinterest By Digital AIM Web Support – February 7, 2021 WhatsApp Twitter Facebook Facebook Twitter Previous articleTom Brady wins 7th Super Bowl and 1st with Tampa Bay as Buccaneers beat Kansas City Chiefs 31-9Next articleAsian shares rise as optimism grows over global recovery Digital AIM Web Support TAGS  The Latest: China’s northeast outbreaks appear under controllast_img read more

Students Who Followed 10+3 (Diploma)+3 (Degree) Course Structure Granted Interim Permission To Pursue 3 Yr LL.B Course By Madras High Court

first_imgNews UpdatesStudents Who Followed 10+3 (Diploma)+3 (Degree) Course Structure Granted Interim Permission To Pursue 3 Yr LL.B Course By Madras High Court Sparsh Upadhyay16 March 2021 5:03 AMShare This – xThe Madras High Court recently issued an interim direction to the Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University to let those students participate in counseling (3-year LLB Course), who, instead of pursuing +2 (Higher Secondary), pursued polytechnic and thereafter, completed their Engineering degree by a regular course. The Bench of Justice B. Pugalendhi has further directed the University…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Madras High Court recently issued an interim direction to the Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University to let those students participate in counseling (3-year LLB Course), who, instead of pursuing +2 (Higher Secondary), pursued polytechnic and thereafter, completed their Engineering degree by a regular course. The Bench of Justice B. Pugalendhi has further directed the University to admit the students, if they are otherwise eligible, after obtaining the undertaking that the admission would be subject to the result of the writ petitions. The matter before the Court The case of the petitioners was that after completing 10th standard, petitioners studied Diploma in polytechnic and thereafter, completed the engineering degree. Further, when they applied for an LLB course in the Madurai Law College, the petitioners’ application was rejected on the ground that they haven’t completed 10 +2 +3 which is the requirement as per the Bar Council Regulation. The Petitioners before the Court challenged the order of the Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, rejecting the petitioners’ application for admission in L.L.B. Course. It was also prayed before the Court that a consequential direction to the University be granted admission to the petitioner in LLB (3 years) degree course in Madurai Law College for the academic year 2020-2021. Respondents’ submission The counsel appearing for the respondents submitted that as per the regulation, a student can pursue the three-year L.L.B.Hons. Degree course only with the qualification of 10+2+3. However, in this case, the petitioners instead of +2 (Higher Secondary), pursued polytechnic and thereafter, completed their Engineering degree by a regular course. Thus, it was submitted that these matters are likely to be listed before the General Council for approval and so the counsel submitted that he needs some time to get written instructions in this regard. Since the petitioners completed degree without studying +2, instead, they studied polytechnic, a diploma course for three years, it was informed that the issue had been referred to the Bar Council of India and a decision has to be taken by them. Court’s order Considering the rival submissions made, the Court directed, “There shall be an order of interim direction, directing the first respondent (University) to permit the petitioners for counseling scheduled to be held on 9th & 10th of March, 2021 and admit the students, if they are otherwise eligible, after obtaining the undertaking that the admission is subject to the result of the writ petitions.” The petitioners have also been permitted to attend classes and it has been made clear that the admission would be subject to the result of the writ petitions. Click Here To Download OrderRead OrderNext Storylast_img read more

EU watchdog labels smoking ban as ‘weak’

first_imgThe European Ombudsman has ruled that a light enforcement of smoking bans inEuropean Parliament administrative buildings in Luxembourg is not only tooweak, but also inefficient. Following complaints made in 1996 from a parliament official, the EuropeanUnion watchdog said the parliament’s defence – that it was up to eachindividual to act responsibly – was not an adequate response to non-compliance.In 1995, the parliament introduced smoking bans for transit areas(entrances, halls, toilets, stairways and lifts), shared offices and meetingrooms, and set aside special smoking areas. However, despite backing these rules with signs and memos, parliamentadmitted that some people did not feel bound by the rules, which lead theofficial to accuse management of “extreme complacency” and”maladministration”. Related posts:No related photos. EU watchdog labels smoking ban as ‘weak’On 10 Feb 2004 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. last_img read more

Cluff’s Triple Leads BYU to Victory

first_imgUVU loaded the bases in the fourth, but senior Blake Inouye came in and ended the inning with no runs scored. Inouye went a total of 3.0 innings, tying a career high with four strikeouts and allowing no runs. BYU got even with UVU in the fifth, when senior Keaton Kringlen’s RBI single scored Cluff from third after the third baseman had reached on a triple the at-bat before. Written by Tags: BYU Cougars Baseball/Jackson Cluff/UCCU Crosstown Clash/UVU Wolverines Baseball “Kudos to Jackson,” said BYU head coach Mike Littlewood. “He got a swing on a pitch that he liked; it was good to see him get that.” McLaughlin earned the win, going to 3-0 on the season after pitching 1.1 innings with no runs. The Wolverines got on the board first with an RBI single to go up 1-0 early in the third inning. The Cougars got a double play soon after, however, to keep the Wolverines at bay and end the inning. Cluff finished going 2-for-5 with three RBIs and a run; his two triples tied a BYU record and made him the first Cougar with two triples in a game since Kelton Caldwell against Utah on March 4, 2014. Jackson Cluff: 2-5, 2 3B, 3 RBI, 2 RReid McLaughlin: W (3-0), 1.1 IP, 0 ER, 0 H, 1 KBlake Inouye: 3.0 IP, 0 ER, 2 H, 4 K March 6, 2019 /Sports News – Local Cluff’s Triple Leads BYU to Victory Freshman Carson Matthews singled and seniors Brian Hsu and Brock Hale loaded the bases after both getting hit by a pitch with two outs and the score tied 1-1 in the bottom of the eighth. Sophomore Jackson Cluff followed with his second triple of the night to score all three runners, then tacked on a run himself after an error by the Wolverines to put BYU up 5-1. The Cougars stay at home to take on Milwaukee in a four-game series starting Thursday, March 7, at 6 p.m. MT before playing a doubleheader on Friday and final game on Saturday. The highlight play of the night on defense came on the third out of the sixth on a rapid-fire relay from Hale in deep right field to freshman Zack Peterson in shallow right and on to Cluff at third to throw out the Wolverine runner attempting to stretch out a triple. Sophomore Drew Zimmerman came on to relieve freshman Reid McLaughlin on the mound in the ninth following the Cougars’ offensive burst and closed out the game in the top of the ninth with two strikeouts. FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPROVO, Utah — BYU baseball scored four runs in the bottom of the eighth inning to break a 1-1 stalemate and win the UCCU Crosstown Clash 5-1 on Tuesday at Miller Field. Player Highlights BYU scored four runs in the eighth, including a three-run triple by Jackson CluffCluff had two triples on the night, tying the BYU record and becoming the first to do so since Kelton Caldwell against Utah on March 4, 2014Six BYU pitchers combined to allow no earned runs and finish with 10 strikeouts against the Wolverines Game Summary Robert Lovelllast_img read more

The Real Dark Materials

first_img                               G.M(r).m                                                    mv2 Newtonian gravity:  F=      r2              Centrifugal force: F= mrw2 =   r The Future? Despite the fiction of Mary Malone, in recent years a new theory of dark matter has been proposed by researchers in the University of Oxford. They propose a dark matter particle too light to detect or clump together but which can collide with denser dark matter in galaxy centres. Such a collision would, in theory, produce pairs of electrons and their antiparticles, positrons, which would move off at high speed until annihilation and production of a high energy photon beam (gamma rays). The interest of this theory is that such beams have already been detected coming from the centres of galaxies, but research is too early to draw conclusions yet. The fact remains that dark matter is still a mystery and that any or all of the theories could prove in some way to be correct. It may even be possible that future research will disprove the existence of dark matter entirely, attributing the “missing mass” to modified gravity or quantum effects. Or perhaps, however unlikely, it may be revealed that dark matter is conscious, as in the case of Philip Pullman’s elusive Dust. “Dust is what makes the alethiometer [Lyra’s truth telling device] work…. You’ve heard of electrons, photons, neutrinos, and the rest? They’re called elementary particles because you can’t break them down any further…” These entities seem to fit the bill for dark matter, as they are suitably massive whilst being undetectable by electromagnetic radiation. However, planets and asteroids are not favoured as a model for the missing matter since planets like Earth are not heavy enough to account for it. Black holes are and though they remain undetectable by light, as this cannot escape, large ones can be detected by the tumultuous activity at their limits, thus rendering them an unlikely explanation. Another theoretical candidate for dark matter is a new type of elementary particles called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) which, as the name suggests, have mass but interact primarily by weak forces and not electromagnetism. Dust is frequently described as an elementary particle in the trilogy and certain of their properties (their smallness and presence throughout the universe, even their penetration of matter) suggest WIMPs as the “real” counterpart of Dust. The smallness of WIMPs is overcome by proposing that many of them exist, and there is often talk of “clouds” of such particles which normal matter moves through unimpeded. Neutrinos in particular have been proposed as a candidate for dark matter as they are uncharged and found in b-decay (i.e. have weak force interactions). The issue with this theory is that for a long time neutrinos were thought to have no mass and thus could not be responsible for the gravitational effects on galaxies. Relatively recent studies on the neutrinos released from the b-decay occurring during fusion of hydrogen to helium in the Sun indicate otherwise. It is possible, though difficult, to detect the neutrinos reaching Earth and it is found that the quantity is a third of that expected. There are in fact three types of neutrino: electron, muon and tau neutrinos of which the Sun produces the first, and these are the ones detected. If the neutrinos have mass, however, it is possible for them to undergo neutrino oscillation, converting them into the different forms. This is thought to be the reason for the neutrino deficit, as two thirds are converted into the undetected types and thus neutrinos must have mass. However, the theory of neutrinos being the missing mass in galaxies is not widely accepted as they cannot pack closely enough at galactic centres due to their repulsiveness. They also move too fast and thus would not clump together to encourage the formation of galaxies. Other forms of WIMP have not been ruled out. In the process of trying to construct a unified theory of electromagnetism and weak forces, a postulate known as supersymmetry (one first used in 1973 for early string theory and subsequently applied elsewhere) was used. This theory suggests that for each boson there is a “superpartner” which is a fermion, e.g. photons and their partner photinos. This theoretically doubles the number of particles known, but it is thought that partners may be much heavier than their counterparts and thus would require much higher energies to be created. This heaviness makes them favourable candidates for dark matter; a particular example of such a postulate is the neutralino which would be heavy and long-lived as well as being weakly interacting. These particles would be able to pass through normal matter and thus would be hard to detect. Experiments would require high sensitivity as information from the detection of dark matter must be removed from background signals due to normal matter. This draws another parallel with ‘His Dark Materials’, as the amber spyglass made by Mary Malone can still see normal matter while making the eye sensitive to Dust, converting its image somehow into light (an unlikely candidate for a detector outside of fictionue to the seeming dependence on electromagnetic radiation!). Current experiments on the detection of WIMPs show conflicting results and thus the question of whether this is dark matter remains unresolved. Rhian Holvey takes us on a tour through physics and fiction, dark matter and dust.  Philip Pullman’s ‘His Dark Materials’ trilogy is undoubtedly one of the most popular and controversial fantasy series on the current market. It is a story about a girl, Lyra, from a parallel universe and a boy, Will, from our own. The series is wide-ranging and covers many themes, including religion, love, humanity and even concepts from modern scientific research. Perhaps the most obvious of these theories is that of parallel worlds; but in fact the core concept of the trilogy, even its title, points to another: Dust, shadows or dark matter. Thus, as r increases, a point is reached where the mass outside this radius is negligible, i.e. M(r) ~ MT (or the total mass of the galaxy) so the velocity is expected to taper out as it approximates to (a constant/ r)1/2. This does not occur since most stars orbit at the same speed. The simplest solution to this problem is to assume that there is a significant proportion of mass outside the containment area. In some cases, more than 50% of the mass of the galaxy must be within the relatively dark galactic halo. These masses cannot be accounted for by observed bodies and are only detectable through observation of galactic gravitational forces. Hence the name ‘dark matter’ as, since it does not emit or reflect electromagnetic radiation, it cannot be observed directly. This gives the first parallel with the Dust of Pullman’s novels, for it is invisible to the naked eye and can only be detected or observed by use of special equipment such as Mary Malone’s machine in Oxford or, later, the amber spyglass. So how does dark matter interact? There are four known forces: gravity, electromagnetism, strong (that which holds nuclei together) and weak (that which governs radioactive decay). We have already ruled out electromagnetism and dark matter’s gravitational effects have already been discussed, leaving strong and weak forces. Strong forces, however, have too short a range: 10-15 m. Thus, weak forces give the best chance of detecting dark matter. Dust The concept of Dust is introduced almost from the very beginning of ‘His Dark Materials’. It is first mentioned when Lyra hides in the retiring room and hears Lord Asriel giving a presentation to the Jordan College scholars. In it he shows a ‘photogram’ (slide) in which a special solution has been used to show up a glowing collection of particles falling down upon a man and it is these he identifies as Dust. An explanation of this is given later on. When Lyra enquires as to what these particles are, she is told: center_img Missing Masses Dark matter was first postulated by a Swiss scientist, Fritz Zwicky, in 1933 due to his studies of the velocities of galaxy clusters, but no further evidence was found until the late 1960’s, when Vera Rubin was studying spiral galaxies. The force acting on such a galaxy can either be described by Newtonian gravity or centrifugally; the equations for both are shown below: This idea is built upon in the second book (‘The Subtle Knife’) when Lyra visits Dr. Mary Malone, a physicist researching what she calls ‘shadow particles’ or ‘dark matter’ in the University of Oxford. Mary has been using a machine to research the strange phenomenon and is surprised to find that Lyra’s visit proves conclusively that the particles are conscious. Although there is no evidence that any such conscious particles exist, dark matter is a real field of research and interesting parallels can be seen between the books’ description and reality. The Nature of Dust The exact composition of dark matter, even the question of its existence, is still being debated. Many suggestions as to its nature have been proposed, from ideas wildly different to Dust to models where the leap is not hard to achieve. To begin with models unlike Dust, it has been suggested that astronomical bodies that do not shine could be responsible for the undetected masses in galaxies. The main entities in this group are brown dwarfs: stars which never got large enough to achieve hydrogen nuclear fusion. These “stars” can have up to 80% of the mass of our sun but are also very dense, having powerful quantum effects which make them a good candidate for dark matter. Other bodies include normal planets (which are difficult to detect even when eclipsing their star), clouds of non-luminous gas and black holes. These are collectively called MACHOs -MAssive Compact Halo Objects – an acronym invented mainly to match the similar WIMPs discussed below! As the forces are equal, these equations can be combined and, after rearrangement, the linear velocity can be given as a function of the gravitational force and M(r): Where M(r) is a function of mass with distance from the galaxy centre (r), m the mass of a single star, w the angular velocity and v the linear velocity. last_img read more