first_imgThe Wayne Bennett-coached side have completed at below 80 per cent in three of their four games so far, culminating in a sloppy effort in last week’s 36-6 quarter-final victory over Papua New Guinea, where they completed just over half of their 46 sets.In contrast, Tonga’s ball control has been a feature of their campaign, averaging a 79 per cent rate so far and leaving Bennett clear on where his side must make progress.”There’s always room for improvement. We have just got to get our handling better, that’s our major concern,” Bennett said.”We are much improved, there is no doubt about that.”[But] the ball control is not exactly where I’d like it. There’s been glimpses of it, been halves of it, we have just got to do it for a full game. But all the other areas are much improved.”Maintaining parity in the possession stakes also shapes as a key to getting over the top of Tonga and limiting the impact of their star-studded forward pack, led by Jason Taumalolo and Andrew Fifita. Prop James Graham echoed his coach’s calls, but took heart from the 36 points his side were able to generate from limited uses of the ball against the Kumuls. “I think probably our ball control could be better, and that’s just the standards that we set,” Graham said.”You look back to the weekend’s game and we still managed to score 36 points off I think 26 completed sets, so I’d rather look at the positive side.”But we are under no illusions that we are going to have to control the ball a little bit better if we are to get through this weekend.”I think for us it’s about playing well for 80 or potentially 90 minutes and staying in the moment. I have said this many times, that I think games like this take 80 or 90 minutes to win but only a moment to lose. “So it’s about staying focused the entire time you are on the field. Every moment, every tackle, we are going to have to be up for.”last_img read more

read more

first_imgThe U-17 World Cup came on rebound and left as the most decisive player. Did you think it would be like that?It was very important for my career because I was not on the first list but I stayed calm, I continued working at Flamengo and, when they told me that I was going, the hope was to work for it. I promoted what I do best, defining a lot in training, and in the World Cup I devoted myself to the semifinal and final. I worked hard for it.After scoring France in 89 ‘in semis to overcome a 2-0, did he expect to start in the final?Yes Yes. We players have that hope when we work hard. I made the goal and of course I wanted, like everyone else. When the coach passed the final alignment, I remained calm, with a positive mind; I knew I would have a chance to play. When I called the teacher to enter I was already quite confident.Did he talk to you between the semi-final and the final to explain his decision?Yes, he told me to be calm and have opportunities. In the previous training I worked on the finalization, which is my best resource, and then I had the opportunity to score the goal of the title and … (laughs).What goes through the head of a player in such a situation?It is a time of great happiness, not only for me, but for all my family and all Brazilians because the country had not won for quite some time and was also at home. Doing the goal of the title in those circumstances, missing a minute and a half to finish, was very happy and did not know how to celebrate. When you arrive at the hotel and stop to think, you watch the video of the goal and remember all that, it is a very special mix.What was not known then was that he was injured. If it had been fine … (laughs)Yes, I didn’t know either. He had hurt me in the final of the Under-17 Super Cup in Maracana. It was in August, but I didn’t know. I thought something was wrong with me and I continued to work normally, treating myself, but one day, after the tournament, the medical department realized and asked for a resonance. They saw that the meniscus was bad. Luckily it was there and I did not miss the World Cup, thank God. “My idols are Cristiano and Neymar, but more Christian because of the way he works” Lazarus Lázaro Vinicius has 17 years and its clause, as revealed by AS in September, is 80 million euros, the highest in the history of that talent factory that is Flamengo. In his club they see him as the next Reinier, that is, as the next crack to go out to Europe, and as such they take care of him and advise him on a day-to-day basis. The hero of Brazil in the 2019 U-17 World Cup receives this newspaper at his home in Rio de Janeiro to review a few months that have changed his life. What did you talk to Ronaldo in the delivery of medals?Congratulations on the goal and the tournament. He is one of the best attackers in the world and everyone, Brazilians and abroad, knows that he was an excellent 9. I play upstairs and I get very inspired by him.In social networks, with the media, in the streets … Do you notice that your day to day has changed?Yes Yes. It is that a World Cup is seen by everyone, over at home, where football is most lived. But I’ve always been a quiet boy, with my feet on the ground and wanting to do my best.How have you managed it?I am calm and my parents, like the rest of the people around me, always help me. I am grateful for not losing the north.Who is your idol?Cristiano Ronaldo and Neymar, but more Cristiano because of the way he works.And your team in Europe?I have several, like all the boys, but I have always had a special affection for Real Madrid. When I had time and stayed at home watching games, they were always from Madrid, with their great players. But in Europe there are many, it is difficult to stay with only one.His clause, without debuting with the Flamengo professional team, is 80 million. Does it weigh you?It does not pressure me, I am calm. It is something that was talked about but what I want is to achieve my goals, make my dreams come true and those of my family. The renovation made me happy because it is a reward for work.Last year he trained once with the first team and this Thursday he also recovered his injury with the adults. How was it noticed?They have been very good experiences, they are very great players. I see them on TV and being trained with them has given me a lot of happiness. I will work more and more to continue climbing the professional team.Is it your big goal of this 2020?Yes of course. Upload and make history.It was very close to the tragedy of the fire in the Ninho do Urubu, in which ten players died from the Flamengo quarry on February 8, 2019.The day of the tragedy I was at home because I was at home because I had vacations. My mother came to my room and told me that the facilities were burning, but I did not understand. Then, when I put my head back on the pillow because I didn’t understand anything, I got up again to see what it was. And then I found out about the whole tragedy … There was only one of the boys I didn’t know, the rest did and talked to them. I always honor them in celebrating my goals.last_img read more

read more

first_imgArticle published by Mike Gaworecki Researchers examined 130 previous studies on the impacts of climate change on threatened birds and mammals and found evidence that nearly 700 species have already exhibited negative responses to recent changes in climate.The researchers estimate that 47 percent of the 873 species of threatened terrestrial mammals and 23 percent of the 1,272 species of threatened birds included in the study have already been adversely impacted by climate change in at least some portion of their range or population.That makes it all the more important to understand the impacts already observable in wildlife due to climatic changes, given that, as noted in the study, the rate of warming over the past 50 years has been around 0.13 degrees Celsius per decade, nearly twice the rate of warming recorded over the previous five decades. The authors of a new study that attempts to quantify the number of wildlife species that are already experiencing adverse impacts from global climate change say their results show that the effects of global warming are much more evident right now than many realize due to the fact that there has been “a massive under-reporting of these impacts.”A team of researchers led by Michela Pacifici of the Global Mammal Assessment Program at Sapienza University of Rome examined 130 previous studies on the impacts of climate change on threatened birds and mammals and found evidence that nearly 700 species have already exhibited negative responses to recent changes in climate. The team detailed their findings in a study published in the journal Nature Climate Change earlier this month.Pacifici and her colleagues estimate that 47 percent of the 873 species of threatened terrestrial mammals and 23 percent of the 1,272 species of threatened birds included in the study have already been adversely impacted by climate change in at least some portion of their range or population. “Our results suggest that populations of large numbers of threatened species are likely to be already affected by climate change, and that conservation managers, planners and policy makers must take this into account in efforts to safeguard the future of biodiversity,” the researchers write in the study.Pacifici said in a statement that these results imply that there is a high likelihood of these species being negatively impacted by future climate change, as well, especially if they are already living with adverse environmental conditions (previous research has found that, though the growth of mankind’s ecological footprint has slowed somewhat in recent years, we have already significantly impacted three quarters of the Earth and “seriously altered” 97 percent of the most species-rich places on the planet).That makes it all the more important to understand the impacts already observable in wildlife due to climatic changes, given that, as noted in the study, the rate of warming over the past 50 years has been around 0.13 degrees Celsius per decade, nearly twice the rate of warming recorded over the previous five decades, meaning that global temperatures are likely to be well above the mean temperature for the current Holocene epoch by the year 2100.James Watson, an Associate Professor at University of Queensland’s School of Earth and Environmental Sciences and a scientist with the Wildlife Conservation Society, said that the impacts of rising global temperatures on birds and mammals have not only been underestimated, but under-reported — and that that can have real impacts on the species’ conservation status.“Only seven percent of mammals and four percent of birds that showed a negative response to climate change are currently considered ‘threatened by climate change and severe weather’ by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species,” Watson, a co-author of the Nature Climate Change study, pointed out in a statement.A November 2016 study that Watson also co-authored found that all aspects of life on Earth have been impacted by climate change. Species found in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems have already been effected, with observed responses ranging from the genetic level all the way to the ecosystem level, that study found.While the effects on some species have been closely studied, the present study represents one of the first attempts to determine just how many species in total are already experiencing impacts of climate change in at least one population. Watson adds that, given that the study clearly shows that climate change’s impacts on mammals and birds, some of the most-studied species on Earth, is not subject to enough scrutiny, it’s extremely likely that less-studied species groups are suffering similar impacts that are also currently under-reported.“We need to greatly improve assessments of the impacts of climate change on all species right now,” Watson said. “We need to communicate the impacts of climate change to the wider public and we need to ensure key decision makers know significant change needs to happen now to stop species going extinct. Climate change is not a future threat anymore.”Even though they are among the better-studied species in the world, birds and mammals are exhibiting climate change impacts today that are frequently underestimated and broadly under-reported, a new study found. Photo by amerune. Source: Wikimedia Commons.CITATIONPacifici, M., Visconti, P., Butchart, S. H., Watson, J. E., Cassola, F. M., & Rondinini, C. (2017). Species’ traits influenced their response to recent climate change. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/nclimate3223Scheffers, B.R. et al. (2016). The broad footprint of climate change from genes to biomes to people. Science. doi:1126/science.aaf7671Venter, O. et al. (2016). Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation. Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms12558FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Animals, Biodiversity, Biodiversity Crisis, Birds, Climate Change, Environment, Impact Of Climate Change, Mammals, Research, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

read more

first_imgScientists have long been puzzled by the immense diversity of tropical rainforests, but a new study finds that both light and height are key to plant diversity.Diversity in the tropics isn’t just about light-loving species versus shade-tolerant ones, but also about how tall plants are when they hit maturity.Research supports both niche theory and unified neutral theory, but with some twists. It’s crowded in the tropics. Take the plant world: 1,000 tree species can coexist in a small equatorial area of only a quarter kilometer squared, according to one forest ecologist, S. Joseph Wright. That’s about as many tree species as in all the temperate forests of the northern hemisphere combined.Though the habitat is known for being sunny, shade is an integral part of the rainforest, as seen from this Amazonian rainforest canopy. Photo courtesy Rhett Butler.But the story of how rainforest plant biodiversity came to be – and rainforest biodiversity in general – suffers from critical gaps.Almost all saplings must spend at least part of their lives in low-light conditions since the extensive rainforest canopy creates shady environments underneath. Forest ecologists know that tropical plants handle the limited light using a resourceful strategy: rather than devoting their energy to growing quickly to reach the light before the others, a great majority of plant species direct a very specific degree of energy into shade-tolerance. This dynamic, found in tropical forests across the world, makes plant diversity even harder to explain. Not only can hundreds of species pack amazingly into small physical spaces, but most also seem to inexplicably crowd into this one main niche space.Scientists have debated what’s potentially going on for decades. Last December, Daniel Falster from Macquarie University, Australia led a PNAS study that pinned down some answers, showing how plant diversity stems from niche competition – except when it doesn’t.“Competitive coexistence occurs when a group of species can all coexist without any of the species driving any of the others extinct, i.e. when each species has its own niche,” the study author, Falster told Mongabay. “In our model plants compete for light. The fact that species can coexist means that no species is able to monopolize this resource for itself.”Falster produced a model that shows how competition for light enables the diverse yet stable landscapes we see in all tropical rainforests. The model landscape changes over time. Natural disruptions occasionally rip through it, leaving some patches bare.Study author Daniel Falster in a patch immediately after a disturbance. Falster’s model shows how these patches age into supporting high diversity. Photo courtesy Daniel Falster.“Disturbance events are common to nearly all forests,” Falster said. “These could be cyclones, fires, floods, disease outbreaks, or any other external agent causing a lot of trees to die. When a disturbance hits a small, local area we call this a ‘patch.’ A forest is made up of many such patches.”Evolution takes off on these bare spaces. Plants compete for light, and at first, the species that do best are those that grow quickly capturing as much sunlight as possible. In their race to the top, early-successional plants neglect putting much energy into leaf development, causing what scientists call low “leaf mass per unit leaf area” or LMA.“Plants with low LMA have leaves which are cheap to build, the savings they make on leaf construction enable the whole plant to grow faster, when small,” Falster said. “However, these cheaply built leaves are weak and therefore short-lived. As such, low LMA leaves need to be replaced often; the cost of this regular turnover makes it difficult to survive in low light where income is scarce.”But one plant’s weakness is another’s niche. As the forest matures and fast-growing, sun-hogging species block the light, plants that direct energy to building higher LMA start to have an advantage. They don’t grow as quickly when they are seedlings, but their higher-quality leaves equip them for survival in the low-light conditions common in rainforests.Falster’s model corroborated some findings from past studies. In the rainforest only three specific, widely different LMA values are viable. For any species with LMA values in between these three main types, the cost of trading growth for shade-tolerance doesn’t pay off, and the species dies out. In other words, along the spectrum of possible amounts of shade-tolerance, there doesn’t appear to be much room for diversity in fully developed forests.Looking into a disrupted patch from the shade. Photo courtesy Daniel Falster.This is the sticky point in niche theory. If competing species can only coexist because they all use different strategies to get enough light, then how come hundreds of species can huddle together around one place, in just a few niches? What’s more, many succession models show that niche development makes room for only one highly shade-tolerant species. But in the real world, the overwhelming majority of rainforest species are those with the highest viable shade-tolerance.Falster’s study resolves the conundrum by revealing a whole new continuum of niches available only to shade-tolerant plants. This second variable is plants’ height at maturation (HMAT). When low-HMAT plants reach maturity, they produce more seeds, but don’t put much energy into further growth. In species with higher HMAT, mature plants might continue their upwards trajectory towards sunlight, but wait longer to reproduce.Unlike with LMA, tropical forests do support a variety of niches in the “height at maturation” spectrum. The study calls this “evolutionary emergent near-neutrality.” As long as the forest is old enough to host highly shade-tolerant plants, niches all along the HMAT continuum become available, enabling the species richness we see in the real-life tropics. Falster explains that high-LMA species have smaller populations, relaxing competition between each other, and allowing plants with different HMAT strategies to coexist.Importantly, the “evolutionary emergent near-neutrality” found in Falster’s study bridges gaps with the controversial “unified neutral theory” put forth in 2001 by Stephen Hubbell, an ecologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. Unified neutral theory assumes that plants coexist, not because they occupy different niches, but because no one trait gives one species an advantage over another.Falster says his study “shows there is a role [for] both theories in understanding forest diversity.”Niche theory explains how shade-tolerant plants develop, while evolutionary emergent near-neutrality shows how plants with different HMAT strategies can coexist because they are almost equally fit to survive in the landscape.“Our model is first and foremost a model of niche differentiation,” he said. “At the same time, an outcome of niche differentiation is the fitness equivalence that neutral theory takes as its starting point.”Citations:Falster, D. S., Brännström, Å., Westoby, M., & Dieckmann, U. (2017). Multitrait successional forest dynamics enable diverse competitive coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(13), E2719–E2728. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610206114Wright JS (2002) Plant diversity in tropical forests: A review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia 130(1):1-14. Environment, Forests, Interns, Plants, Rainforest Biodiversity, Rainforests, Research, Trees, Tropical Forests Article published by Maria Salazarcenter_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

read more

first_imgArticle published by Rebecca Kessler A new study analyzed data on dissolved oxygen in the global ocean since 1958 from the World Ocean Database, the most comprehensive collection of ocean observations.The study attributes the declining oxygen levels primarily to a combination of changes in ocean circulation, mixing, and biochemical processes resulting from ocean warming.The declining oxygen levels could have dire ecological consequences, particularly in areas with naturally low oxygen levels. Ocean oxygen levels have been dropping since the 1980s in a pattern consistent with expectations from global warming, according to a new analysis of 50 years of global ocean data. That could spell trouble for marine life, causing respiratory stress.The new study disputes the idea that natural fluctuations in temperature could be the cause of the declining oxygen levels. Rather it tends to support existing climate change modelling.A team of four scientists from the U.S. and Japan analyzed data on dissolved oxygen in the top 1,000 meters of the global ocean since 1958. The data came from the World Ocean Database, the most comprehensive collection of ocean observations. The study, titled “Upper ocean O2 trends: 1958–2015,” appeared in the journal Geophysical Research Letters last month.“The important aspect of our result is that the rate of global oxygen loss appears to be exceeding the level of nature’s random variability,” the team’s lead scientist, oceanographer Takamitsu Ito of the Georgia Institute of Technology, said in his blog.“The data are consistent with and strongly suggestive of human-driven warming as a root cause of the oxygen decline. Indeed, there is broad agreement across models that indicates we should expect precipitous declines in dissolved oxygen to become evident about now,” another scientist on the research team, oceanographer Matthew Long of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, told Mongabay.The study attributes the declining oxygen levels primarily to a combination of changes in ocean circulation, mixing, and biochemical processes, rather than simply to the fact that warmer water holds less oxygen. Ito said the study shows that ocean oxygen levels are decreasing two or three times faster than would be predicted if they were due to warming water alone.Previous climate change research had predicted the ocean circulation changes highlighted in the new study, warned that ocean oxygen levels could drop by as much as 7 percent by 2100, and showed that deep ocean water masses were already experiencing reduced oxygen levels.“This side effect of global warming is deeply concerning because it will very likely have profound, disruptive impacts on marine ecosystems, including fisheries,” Long said.“There is more and more evidence of how the ocean is changing and this is another study demonstrating, clearly showing, that the ocean is changing and the key processes are changing,” said Richard Matear, Senior Research Scientist with the Oceans and Atmosphere unit of Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, who was not involved in the new study.“The key message from the paper is that the circulation in the ocean is changing,” Matear told Mongabay.He noted that atmospheric temperatures haven’t gone up as rapidly as expected in the last decade or so in part because more heat than researchers had anticipated is going into the ocean. Particular surface water masses around the world perform key roles in oxygenating underlying water, but if they heat up they become less oxygenated and less dense so they can’t circulate the oxygen deeply.This loss of oxygen could have dire ecological consequences, and areas with naturally low oxygen levels would be particularly vulnerable. For instance, low oxygen levels in the western North Pacific along the coast of Washington, Oregon, and California could further decline to zero, Matear said, resulting in oceanic dead zones.Similarly, Matear said, low oxygen regions near Chile, India, and Africa could expand.“The bigger implication is it’s no longer in the future; it’s happening now,” said Matear.“It reinforces the idea that the system is changing and we need to think about what we are going to do about it,” he said.“Consistent with the COP22 agreement we do need to move to a world that has less carbon emissions and the challenge for us is how to do that.”CitationsIto, T., Minobe, S., Long, M.C., Deutsch, C. (2017). Upper ocean O2 trends: 1958–2015. Geophysical Research Letters 44(9): 4214–4223.Editor’s note 6/5/17: This story was updated to include late-breaking comments from Matthew Long.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.A reef off Sabah, Malaysia. Photo by Rhett A. Butler. Animals, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Emissions, Climate Change, Environment, Fish, Marine, Marine Animals, Marine Ecosystems, Ocean Warming, Oceans, Oceans And Climate Change center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

read more

first_imgThe delta smelt is a three-to-four-inch long, silvery-blue fish that has long been at the center of California’s contentious water wars.The species lives only in the San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and its numbers have been declining for decades as enormous quantities of freshwater are diverted through the state’s vast network of aqueducts and canals.The freshwater river flow also replenished Chinook salmon spawning grounds and freshened habitats (reducing salinity) in San Francisco Bay for waterfowl, Dungeness crab, and countless other aquatic flora and fauna in an immense system of sloughs, mudflats, and marshes. Now, however, most of that water is diverted to California’s thirsty farms and clamoring, growing cities.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Over at the California Water Blog, UC Davis fish biologists Peter Moyle and Jason Baumsteiger observe that two species of California fish — one small and the other big — appear to be on the verge of imminent extinction in the wild. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) and the winter-run Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have long been in dire straits.The plight of these two hapless species symbolizes how biodiversity and wild nature in California are being pummeled by a human population now numbering nearly 40 million. In stark contrast, only six tiny smelts, the lowest number ever recorded, were counted in a survey by state fishery biologists in 2015; in previous years, up to several hundred had been netted.The human population in California, in both its rural and urban manifestations, is exerting an ever-greater load on the environment — in this case, via ever-increasing competition for the precious and all-too-limited resource, water. At the moment, California is bathing in water after the wettest winter on record, but we all know that won’t last. The state has always been plagued by multi-year droughts, but climate modelers predict that it may be punished by a “terrifying” scenario of longer-lasting “megadroughts” in the future.Delta smelt. Photo Credit: Peter Johnsen, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.The delta smelt is a three-to-four-inch long, silvery-blue fish that has long been at the center of California’s contentious water wars. It lives only in the San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and its numbers have been declining for decades as enormous quantities of freshwater are diverted through the state’s vast network of aqueducts and canals.It used to be that the force of Sacramento River and San Joaquin River flows pushed back against saltwater from San Francisco Bay (and smaller connected bays such as San Pablo, Suisun, Grizzly, and Honker), preventing the salty wedge from protruding too far upstream into the fresher water (less brackish) delta. The delta smelt foraged in the brackish bay and spawned in the freshwater delta.The freshwater river flow also replenished Chinook salmon spawning grounds and freshened habitats (reducing salinity) in San Francisco Bay for waterfowl, Dungeness crab, and countless other aquatic flora and fauna in an immense system of sloughs, mudflats, and marshes.Juvenile Chinook salmon among the rocks of a freshwater stream; note the vertical parr marks, which disappear when the salmon smolts (turns silvery) and migrates to the ocean. Photo Credit: NOAA.Now, however, most of that water is diverted to California’s thirsty farms and clamoring, growing cities. And the two fish species are dying out as a result. If they disappear altogether from the wild, they will join approximately 57 other fish taxa declared extinct in North America since about 1900. Seven fish species in California have gone extinct.However, captive populations of both the salmon and the smelt are being maintained (and carefully protected against inbreeding) to guard against their complete obliteration from the universe. Perhaps someday, when conditions in the wild have improved, these survivors might serve as a “seed source” to re-establish wild populations, although this is a big “if.”Moyle and Baumsteiger raise important questions about extinction, official declarations of extinction, and their implications for fisheries and wildlife management and allocation of scarce conservation dollars.Parallels between death and extinctionA death certificate is an official statement documenting the cause, date, and place of a person’s ultimate demise. It is signed by a physician.If a lifetime could be likened to a sentence with a subject, object, and verb — action performed by a subject on an object — then a death certificate would be like the period at the end of the sentence. It connotes finality and closure.But what happens when an entire species dies out? While extinction amounts to the death of a whole species or sub-species — that is, of each and every member of a population that share a common genetic inheritance and that can interbreed with one another in the wild — in California and the United States there is no formal declaration of extinction that corresponds to a death certificate.Being absolutely certain of a species’ extinction is typically much harder than being certain of an individual’s death. There is often a good deal of lingering doubt as to whether or not all remaining individuals, down to the very last one, have in fact perished from the face of the Earth. This lingering doubt may engender a good deal of stress, tension, and even dispute.Years ago my good friend Dave vanished while traveling and hiking in the Peruvian Andes. His father traveled to Peru in search of his missing son, and managed to track down and speak to a lady who’d sat next to Dave on a bus that dropped him off at a trailhead. This was the last known person to see him other than perhaps those who may have murdered or abducted him. No remains and no belongings were ever recovered from this remote place.Tragically, my buddy’s parents went to their own graves years later still mourning their missing, beloved son.The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta viewed from above Sherman Island, with the Sacramento River above and San Joaquin River below. Photo via Wikimedia Commons, licensed under CC BY 2.0.In such awful circumstances, a person may legally be declared dead in absentia in spite of the absence of direct evidence of his or her death (e.g., a corpse or skeleton, or portions thereof). Typically, a declaration of death in absentia is made only when a person has been missing for an extended period of time and in the absence of any evidence to the contrary.The situation we as a society face in the case of biological species or subspecies on the verge of extinction is more like the case of my missing friend. Rarely are extinctions as clearcut as they were in the case of Martha, the very last passenger pigeon to perish; when Martha, an “endling” or last of her kind, died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914, an entire species died out with her.More often extinctions are like the sad story of the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), last confirmed in the wild back in the 1940s, but claimed by at least some competent ornithologists and amateurs to have been observed as recently as this century. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service released a recovery plan for this bird which may have already been extinct for three-quarters of a century.Moyle and Baumsteiger conclude that:[T]he best strategy is not to let any fish species go extinct. If a fish species does go extinct, despite our best efforts, then funds and water used to keep the species going should be redirected towards keeping other species from following the same extinction trajectory. But to avoid spending scarce conservation dollars on species that have already gone extinct, we need a policy in place that provides a pathway for declaring a species officially extinct.By extension, this applies to conserving all species of flora and fauna that share Planet Earth with us.Extinction, like death, may be a natural phenomenon — all species are doomed to die out sooner or later. Extinction occurred for eons before Homo sapiens swaggered onto the scene. But H. sapiens has now assumed the role of life’s executioner. Biologists estimate that the rate of extinction has increased one-thousand fold above the natural background rate since humankind took dominion of the Earth.As I wrote at the end of my essay, “Overpopulation versus Biodiversity: How a Plethora of People Produces a Paucity of Wildlife,” in the 2012 book Life on the Brink: Environmentalists Confront Overpopulation:Our species is unique, because here and now only we have the ability to destroy, or to save, biodiversity. Only we have the ability to care one way or the other. The destiny of all wild living things is in our hands. Will we crush them or let them be wild and free? Limiting human population will not guarantee success, but not doing so means certain failure.A school of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Photo via Wikimedia Commons, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.Leon Kolankiewicz is a wildlife biologist and environmental scientist and planner. He is the author of Where Salmon Come to Die: An Autumn on Alaska’s Raincoast and the essay “Overpopulation versus Biodiversity” in Environment and Society: A Reader. He also is an Advisory Board Member and Senior Writing Fellow with Californians for Population Stabilization.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Mike Gaworecki Animals, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change And Conservation, Climate Change And Extinction, Commentary, Conservation, Critically Endangered Species, Editorials, Endangered Species, Environment, Extinction, Fish, Fisheries, Freshwater Fish, Researcher Perspective Series, Water, Water Scarcity, Wildlife Conservation center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

read more

first_imgAncient Civilizations, Ancient Cultures, Biodiversity, Commentary, Conservation, Editorials, Forest People, Forests, Indigenous Cultures, Indigenous Peoples, Old Growth Forests, Primary Forests, Rainforest People, Rainforests, Tribal Groups, Tropical Forests Article published by Rhett Butler Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Intact forests are among the few places on earth where native trees and animals can fulfill their ecological roles outside the influence of industrial humankind.Some interpret “intact” to mean absent the influence of people, but people have lived within forests the world over for millennia and we are only beginning to understand how they have – and continue to – influence them.We cannot solve our most pressing environmental and development problems by compromising the few areas that remain whole.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Intact forests are among the few places on earth where native trees and animals can fulfill their ecological roles outside the influence of industrial humankind. Some interpret “intact” to mean absent the influence of people, but people have lived within forests the world over for millennia and we are only beginning to understand how they have – and continue to – influence them.A recent article in Science reviews plant domestication practices by pre-Columbian peoples in the Amazon, concluding that they continue to influence the composition of the forest we know today. Of the roughly 16,000 woody species the Science researchers identified within the Amazon forest, a mere 227 account for more than half of the total number of trees in the Amazon, a disproportionality that the authors refer to as “hyper-dominant.”Pre-Columbian peoples domesticated roughly 10 percent of these 227 hyper-dominant species to some degree, and according to archaeological evidence, distributed them across the Amazon basin. They thus changed forest composition by enriching the forest with useful species and creating new landscapes for domesticated plants.A Tacana woman harvesting a cacao pod in Bolivia. Photo by Mileniusz Spanowicz / WCSHistory has shown that people can live successfully in forests over long periods of time. Despite the massive demographic upheavals that have occurred as a result of agrarian, industrial, and digital revolutions, intact forests are still home to hunter-gatherers in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Such communities depend almost exclusively on the direct use of forest resources for food, fuel, fiber, and shelter.Forests do not respond well when we try to simplify ecosystems by prioritizing some species over others or when we attempt to maximize yields or trade value. Societies that went down those paths were susceptible to ecological collapse, such as those suffered by the Classic Maya of Central America or the Polynesians of Easter Island. Enduring cultures have taken advantage of and worked to maintain the diversity of plant and animal species that comprise intact forest ecosystems.The Tacana People of northwestern Bolivia are successfully managing the forests of their indigenous territory. Like other peoples who have successfully managed forest resources over the long term, their production strategy focuses on utilizing a diverse and widely dispersed resource base. Photo by Mileniusz Spanowicz / WCS.Forest systems typically contain a large number of species but few representatives of any particular species, though soil conditions on occasion can produce near mono-cultures of palms and other trees, like Dipterocarps (Asian mahogany). In additional, the biomass and annual productivity of wildlife in forests is on average 1/10th that of grasslandsGiven this, hunter-gatherers and farmer-foragers  must have access to enough forest to allow most of it to lie fallow at any particular time, recovering from serial overuse. Today, forest societies that almost exclusively depend on the direct use of natural resources to meet their basic needs seldom exceed population densities of 1-2 people per square kilometer, and tend to change location from time to time to ensure that their search for food and other products will not permanently deplete an area of key resources.A mobile lifestyle based on utilizing a diverse but diffuse cornucopia of forest resources strongly favors overlapping rights that secure use of different resources at different times of the year and as ecological conditions change. Because such systems do not fit easily within national models that emphasize exclusive state or individual rights to land and resources, it is not surprising that traditional peoples are among the most politically and economically marginalized and vulnerable people in the countries where they live.The world’s remaining intact forests benefit more from their isolation from commercial transport networks than purposeful and foresighted government policy. Elsewhere, forests have been transformed into individually owned farms, ranches, and plantations, which are often dedicated to a single commodity. Once a desired resource has been extracted, they become abandoned wastelands. Such is the fate of the forest after illegal gold mining in Amazonia and legal mountaintop removal for coal in Appalachia.As the impacts of global climate change become more pronounced, forest functions like storing carbon, moderating temperatures, and maintaining regional rainfall will increase in value, and justifications for transforming these remaining intact forests will diminish. Conservationists must work with indigenous rights advocates to help traditional peoples continue (or resume) roles they have historically played as front-line stewards of their forests and our global patrimony.Nonetheless, while intact forests can sustain dispersed populations, and limit the impacts of climate change, they may not be able to satisfy all the needs of growing rural communities for food and income, or meet the increasing aspirations of forest peoples who have freed themselves from extreme poverty. Addressing these needs requires us to rethink local land use planning and global relationships between urban centers and the hinterlands that supply them.Fungi in Costa Rica. Photo by Rhett A. Butler for Mongabay.com.For conservationists, this means we need to pay more attention to areas that have already been transformed. Historically, we have focused on improving livelihood options and building incentives for conservation by promoting sustainable forest use in the form of ecotourism, sustainable timber harvesting, and extraction of non-timber forest products. While these efforts have often been successful, they carry built-in limitations if our objective is to keep those ecosystems intact.We must also build effective alliances with professionals in disciplines that include fish farming; agriculture; household economics; and the raising of pigs, goats, chickens and other “small stock.” While they have not historically been conservation partners, their expertise is essential if we are to increase the productivity of lands that have already been converted and reduce the pressure on the world’s remaining intact forests.In altering the Earth to serve human kind we have already transformed 90 percent of the planet while reducing our capacity to address new challenges like climate change. We cannot solve our most pressing environmental and development problems by compromising the few areas that remain whole. Instead we must embrace our intact landscapes for the ecosystems they conserve and the communities they sustain.Wildlife like jaguars depend on large tracts of habitat like those managed by indigenous peoples. Photo by Rhett A. Butler for Mongabay.comlast_img read more

read more

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Agriculture Minister Blairo Maggi. An Amaggi Group farm was one of those occupied by MST protesters this week. In April, it was announced that Blairo Maggi would be investigated for corruption by the federal Supreme Court (STF). Photo credit: Senado Federal via Visualhunt / CC BY This week, Brazil’s internationally recognized Landless Workers Movement (MST) launched a coordinated protest against corruption, with thousands of its members occupying six farms affiliated with government officials and Brazil’s wealthy elite.Farms were occupied by hundreds of protesting landless families in the states of Mato Grosso, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Minas Gerais.One occupation occurred on a soy farm owned by the Amaggi Group and affiliated with Brazilian agriculture minister Blairo Maggi. Another occurred on the farm of João Baptista Lima Filho, a close friend of President Temer. Both Lima Filho and Temer are under investigation for alleged corruption.At present, neither federal nor state authorities have made any known moves to end the occupations. MST occupation of Ricardo Teixeira’s farm in Piraí, Rio de Janeiro on July 25, 2017. Photo courtesy of Mídia NINJAIn a large scale, well coordinated protest in six states, more than 2,000 rural families, members of Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement (MST), occupied six farms belonging to some of the nation’s top politicians and the wealthy elite in the early hours of Tuesday and Wednesday this week.With a straight-to-the-point slogan — Corrupt ones, give us back our lands! — the movement demands a resurgence of agrarian reform in the country and the removal of Michel Temer from the presidency. Temer’s policies, according to his critics, heavily favor the interests of the bancada ruralista agribusiness lobby that helped bring him to power in 2016.João Pedro Stédile, one of the movement’s founders, stated in a video that the “MST has taken the decision to begin occupying the lands of corrupt ones. This bourgeoisie is so unashamed that they steal public money and invest it on lands, as if they were farmers.”On its website, the MST declared that: “the landowners who hold these areas are accused of acts of corruption, such as money laundering, illicit favoritism, and fraud.” The site went on to say: “It is clear the relationship of large agribusiness companies with bribe schemes, ‘purchase’ of politicians, money laundering and even involvement with drug trafficking. The latest case, in which a plane full of cocaine was identified taking off from a property of the Minister of Agriculture, King of Soy, Blairo Maggi, exposes the promiscuous relations undertaken by agribusiness.”An MST banner demanding agrarian reform and protesting corruption at Ricardo Teixeira’s farm in Piraí, Rio de Janeiro. Courtesy of Mídia NINJARicardo Teixeira, former Brazilian Football Confederation chairman and member of the FIFA executive committee. In 2015, Teixeira was indicted in the United States for racketeering, conspiracy and corruption. Teixeira is also accused of illegally diverting millions of euros from Brazilian football games. Photo by Marcello Casal jr. courtesy of Agência BrasilThe organization was referring to a plane intercepted last June by the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) carrying 1,439 pounds of cocaine in Goiás state. Based on the testimony of the aircraft pilot, FAB reported that the twin engine plane had taken off from a farm that belongs to the Amaggi Group, the giant agribusiness consortium belonging to the Maggi family. However, after analyzing the GPS of the smuggler’s aircraft, the Federal Police rejected that assertion and FAB retracted the statement.Of the six MST occupied farms this week, one belongs to the Amaggi Group and the Maggi family, a 1,183 acre (479 hectares) farm along the BR-163 highway in Mato Grosso state. According to MST, about 1,000 families are at the SM02-B soy plantation. In April, it was announced that Brazil’s Agriculture Minister Blairo Maggi would be investigated for corruption by the federal Supreme Court (STF).In a response to the occupation, Amaggi Group stated: “At the moment, the company is concerned about the physical integrity of the 17 employees and family members residing on the farm and is taking the necessary measures to ensure their safety. At the same time, it is seeking legal means to reestablish order in its productive unit.” Blairo Maggi did not immediately respond to Mongabay’s request for comment.About 1,500 families in Mato Grosso are waiting agrarian reform, according to MST.The MST, in a protest against corruption, has occupied six farms of Brazil’s elite. Photo courtesy of MST_Flickr Located west of São Paulo, the Esmeralda farm was invaded by 800 landless farmers on Tuesday. This is the second time MST has occupied this property (the first was in 2016). According to the organization, much of the farm was established through land theft. The man claiming ownership of the property is João Baptista Lima Filho, a longtime friend of President Temer.In May, Lima Filho became the target of the Lava Jato corruption investigation when he was accused in the JBS meat processing scandal, which has also implicated Temer. Two JBS executives have stated that Lima Filho, a retired military man, received about US $300,000 from JBS during Temer’s 2014 presidential campaign.An unflattering representation on the MST website of João Baptista Lima Filho, a longtime friend of president Temer under investigation for possible corruption. Lima Filho’s Esmeralda farm was invaded by 800 landless farmers this week. Photo courtesy of the MST websiteAnother occupation occurred this week in Piraí, 55 miles from the city of Rio de Janeiro, on the Santa Rosa farm. This ranch, with its 500 head of cattle, is owned by Ricardo Teixeira, former Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) chairman and member of the FIFA executive committee. The property was occupied by more than 300 rural families, according to MST.In 2015, Teixeira was indicted in the United States for racketeering, conspiracy and corruption. On Monday, Brazil’s federal Attorney General’s Office (PGR) asked courts in Spain to forward to them the results of an investigation done by Spanish authorities into Teixeira’s alleged illegal activities which include racketeering and money laundering. Teixeira and former Barcelona football president Sandro Rossell are accused of illegally diverting millions of euros from Brazilian football games.In Teresina, Piauí, along the BR-316 highway, senator Ciro Nogueira’s Junco’s farm was occupied by about 200 families. MST estimates that the farm covers 4,447 acres (1,800 hectares). Nogueira told the press that the property belongs to his mother. In April, Brazil’s supreme court announced that Nogueira was one of 24 senators under investigation for corruption.Businessman, and one of Brazil’s wealthiest citizens, Eike Batista (in white T-shirt) after his testimony on corruption charges at Federal Police headquarters in Rio de Janeiro on January 31, 2017. On Wednesday, 200 families occupied a farm in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, that belongs to the MMX company owned by Batista. Photo by Fernando Frazão / Agência BrasilAnother farm was invaded by 300 families in Alto Paraíso, Paraná state. It is owned by the Lupus Group, producer of pet foods and livestock feed. According to MST, “in 2007 the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA) inspected the area and concluded, with technical reports, that the farm was unproductive for not fulfilling its social purpose, which is the proper use of the natural resources and the preservation of the environment, so it should be expropriated for agrarian reform purposes.”On Wednesday, 200 families occupied a farm in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, that belongs to the MMX company. In judicial recovery, MMX is owned by former billionaire Eike Batista, under house arrest for corruption and money laundering crimes.To date, federal and state officials have made no publicized moves to end the occupations. In Piraí, police cars were sent to Lima Filho’s farm on the first day of the occupation. So far, there has been no known conflict.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.center_img Agriculture, Amazon Agriculture, Amazon Conservation, Amazon People, Amazon Soy, Cattle, Cattle Ranching, Controversial, Corruption, Environment, Environmental Crime, environmental justice, Environmental Politics, Forests, Green, Industrial Agriculture, Land Conflict, Land Grabbing, Land Rights, Land Use Change, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforests, Saving The Amazon, Social Conflict, Social Justice, Soy, Threats To The Amazon, Traditional People Article published by Glenn Schererlast_img read more

read more

first_imgArticle published by Mike Gaworecki In a recent report by Global Witness, Latin America was again identified as one of the most dangerous regions for those protecting forests, halting mining projects, opposing big dams, and taking other action in defence of the environment.Surprisingly, however, one country singled out for attention is Nicaragua, described by Global Witness (GW) as one of the ‘deadliest countries for activists’ because it had ‘the most killings per capita’ in the world in 2016. How accurate is this assertion?All of us share concerns about the planned interoceanic canal, which features strongly in GW’s new report, and would cross the southern part of the country. There have been at least 87 protest marches against the canal, and a degree of harassment of protestors. But – importantly – there have been no deaths.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Earlier this month, Global Witness published its latest annual report on the deaths of environmental defenders. As Mongabay reported, Latin America was again identified as one of the most dangerous regions for those protecting forests, halting mining projects, opposing big dams, and taking other action in defence of the environment.Surprisingly, however, one country singled out for attention is Nicaragua, described by Global Witness (GW) as one of the ‘deadliest countries for activists’ because it had ‘the most killings per capita’ in the world in 2016. How accurate is this assertion?I live in Nicaragua and work with a small environmental NGO, and have discussed the GW report with others knowledgeable about the country’s environmental issues. All of us share concerns about the planned interoceanic canal, which features strongly in GW’s new report, and would cross the southern part of the country. There have been at least 87 protest marches against the canal, and a degree of harassment of protestors. But — importantly — there have been no deaths.Nevertheless, the majority of the section on Nicaragua in GW’s new report is devoted to the canal. Very misleadingly, it juxtaposes commentary on the canal and quotes from protestors (‘The only response we have had is the bullet’) with reports of killings of indigenous people. However, these killings — which GW says total 24 over two years — have nothing to do with the canal, whose route is over 200 kilometres to the south.The region in the northeast of Nicaragua that includes the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is under severe pressure from settlers moving from other parts of the country. They see ‘empty’ land, and either move in to occupy it, have been granted concessions under government schemes, or rent or buy the land from the indigenous communities which often have communal land rights. These land rights cannot be sold, so the titles often lack legal status. Inevitably, there are conflicts with the original owners or the indigenous communities. In a region that was one of the main arenas of the ‘Contra’ war in the 1980s, and is now plagued by narco-trafficking, both sides have ready access to arms. Reports of pitched battles, destruction of settler homesteads, and killings of individual settlers and indigenous people are frequent.In compiling its worldwide lists of those killed each year, GW clearly has to be careful how ‘environmental defenders’ are defined. They include those who take ‘peaceful action… to protect the environment or land rights,’ among whom are ‘peasant leaders… living in remote mountains or isolated forests, protecting their ancestral lands.’ These are the parts of GW’s definition that relate most closely to Nicaragua, yet it is far from clear that the 24 deaths comply with it. We don’t know whether those killed were armed, but we do know that neither the indigenous groups nor the settlers are engaged solely in ‘peaceful actions.’ It is also clear from examining the details of some of the 24 cases that characterising them all as deaths in defence of the environment is highly questionable: one was a park ranger elsewhere in Nicaragua who apparently died in a personal feud, another was a political activist in the Bosawás area who died after being temporarily kidnapped by a rival party, and a third was a community leader whose killing was reported to have nothing to do with the land disputes.The reason for questioning GW’s compilation and use of statistics is not to try to lessen the significance of the land disputes in Nicaragua, which are having a devastating affect on both the remaining forests and the people involved in the disputes. However, as one detailed 2015 study has said, it is wrong to see the conflicts as between ‘victims’ and oppressors,’ as on both sides there are poor people struggling to eke out a living from the land. The conflicts, and the deaths on both sides (GW only lists deaths among the indigenous communities), are an ongoing tragedy resulting from the advance of the agricultural frontier into forests that are also communal lands. Criticisms of the government for not doing more to resolve the disputes are justified, but it must also be borne in mind that the task is a huge one given that, if they are evicted, the settlers often have nowhere else to go. The communities involved are also remote: police investigating a reported murder of one family spent two days on foot to reach the scene of the crime.The problem with GW’s latest report is that it mixes its brief reporting of these land disputes with wider criticisms of the alleged dangers facing environmental defenders in Nicaragua. For example, the canal protests take place against the ‘terrifying backdrop’ of ‘multiple murders’ that in fact occurred at the opposite end of the country from the territories through which the canal will pass. Criticisms of the government’s ineffective action in resolving the land disputes therefore appear to be much wider condemnations of government inaction on — or complicity in — death threats to environmental defenders in general.This is very disappointing, because GW’s work in exposing the deaths of environmental defenders is vitally important. Nowhere is this truer than in neighbouring Honduras, where the death of the renowned environmentalist Berta Cáceres was recorded by GW along with 13 other deaths in the country last year. However, the situation in Honduras and indeed in other Latin American countries where activists live in danger of their lives is very different from Nicaragua. Travellers between the two neighbouring countries remark on the change in atmosphere when crossing from Honduras to Nicaragua.Yet, in addition to reporting the 24 deaths in Nicaragua, GW says that laws restricting free speech have been ‘tightened,’ human rights defenders have been arrested, and environmental activists expelled. This is grossly misleading. For example, freedom of speech is evidenced by two main anti-government newspapers and several TV channels, active opposition political parties, and anti-government demonstrations. There is vociferous public criticism of the canal project – even the government’s own scientific adviser publicly questions its environmental impact. A while ago I went to a well-attended conference at the main university that was addressed exclusively by the canal’s opponents.Why does this seemingly deliberate confusion by GW of two separate issues matter? First, the reports are unfair both to Nicaragua and to Honduras, where the problems are immense. Giving the impression that the authorities in both countries are almost equally bad in this respect does, quite simply, let Honduras off the hook.Second, Nicaragua — unlike Honduras — is making real attempts to deal with environmental issues. They are far from enough, but they involve reforestation programmes by young people, protection for turtle nesting sites, being a leading country in Latin America in embracing wind, solar, and geothermal power, and so on. Few people who know Nicaragua would claim that environmental activists live in fear of their lives.Finally, these comparisons are highly relevant in a region where policy and funding by the USA favours Honduras, largely ignoring its human rights abuses. A group of Republican senators is currently trying to get Trump to mount economic sanctions — not against Honduras, but against Nicaragua and its left-wing government. The subtleties of the reporting by Global Witness will be ignored in Washington, but their main message — that Nicaragua is trampling on human rights — is just the one the country’s opponents want to hear.The people of Rama Cay, an island in the Bluefields Lagoon on the eastern coast of Nicaragua that sits in the path of the proposed canal, gather to express their opposition to the Nicaragua Canal at a public meeting. Photos courtesy of CALPI (Centro de Asistencia Legal a Pueblos Indígenas).CITATIONSJhon, E. (2015). Presencia de colonos en el territorio MSBAS y las tensiones sobre la autonomía comunitaria de la tierra. Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Universidad Centroamericana.Global Witness. (2017). Defenders of the Earth.John Perry lives in Masaya, Nicaragua, writes on Latin America for the London Review of Books, and works voluntarily with a local environmental NGO. His website is twoworlds.me.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Activism, Canals, Commentary, Conflict, Editorials, Environment, Funding, Human Rights, Indigenous Communities, Indigenous Peoples, Infrastructure, Land Conflict center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

read more

first_imgFeatured, Forests, Infrastructure, Rainforests, Roads, Tropical Forests For those who regularly use Guyana’s Linden-Lethem trail for work, trade, or visiting family, it’s a source of constant frustration.An 80-mile section of the road, stretching from Linden to Mabura Hill, has been earmarked for rehabilitation.The Caribbean Development Bank has just approved a grant of $1.06 million to the government of Guyana to fund a feasibility study for the project. GEORGETOWN, Guyana – Imagine for a second you’re on a road. A long, rough, red-dirt road lined by thick rainforest. You’re in a small, crowded minibus coming from Georgetown, Guyana’s coastal capital on the Atlantic Ocean, and heading for Lethem on the southern border with Brazil. For the first couple of hours, up until the once-flourishing Bauxite-mining town of Linden, the road was paved and progress was quick. But now the bus is moving in fits and spurts, lurching left and right to avoid the giant potholes that have been gouged in the road by passing trucks, groaning under the weight of freshly timbered trees.The driver plays reggae soca, Brazilian forró music – anything to stay alert as night begins to fall. Eventually the bus reaches the wide Essequibo River, but you can’t cross it until 6am when the floating pontoon starts operating. Once you do make it over, there’s more forest to pass through, followed by mountain-fringed savannah, before you finally emerge bleary-eyed in Lethem in time for a late breakfast or early lunch.For the intrepid traveler, it’s an adventure. For those who regularly use the Linden-Lethem trail for work, trade, or to visit family, it’s a source of constant frustration. Especially during the rainy season when some bridges and sections of the highway are barely passable or wash away entirely – as has been the case in recent weeks.“I saw this road get so bad…sometimes we [would] cover two kilometers [1.2 miles] in nine hours,” said Colin Jarvis, who lives along the road in the village of Surama and has been a driver for the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development for almost 20 years. “We need to have a good road, a proper road.”Jarvis may be about to get his wish – up to a point. An 80-mile section of the road, stretching from Linden to Mabura Hill, has been earmarked for rehabilitation. The project is being funded by the United Kingdom Caribbean Infrastructure Partnership Fund (UKCIF) and administered by the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB). A bridge is also planned to replace the pontoon crossing at Kurupukari and provide 24-hour access over the river.At the time of publication, CDB’s board of directors had just approved a grant of $1.06 million to the government of Guyana to fund a feasibility study for the project. According to Andrew Dupigny, Head of Infrastructure Partnerships at the CDB, the technical assistance provided will include a full Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, plus a Climate Vulnerability Assessment.Talk of fixing the road is nothing new in Guyana, where previous promises and feasibility studies have evaporated into thin air – usually due to lack of financing to actually carry out the work. There was the 2000 ADK/Gibb Feasibility Study funded by the European Union, the 2008 Mott MacDonald/CEMCO Pre-Feasibility Study funded by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), followed by another IDB-funded feasibility study in 2012 carried out by SNC Lavalin.But there is optimism that this time things will be different.“I give myself [until] early-mid next year [when] work should commence,” said Geoffrey Vaughn, coordinator and chief works officer at Guyana’s Ministry of Public Infrastructure.Funding is also being sought for the remaining section of the road, from Mabura Hill to Lethem, and the government is in discussion with different prospective investors, including the Islamic Development Bank, China and Brazil. Following the 2009 installation of the Takatu Bridge, connecting Lethem with Bonfim in Brazil, then-Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva pledged to support the paving of the Linden-Lethem road, which in turn would open up opportunities for Brazil to trade out of Georgetown’s coastal port. In a recent meeting, Brazil reaffirmed its commitment.The pontoon crossing at Kurupukari takes vehicles over the Essequibo River. Under current plans, the pontoon will be replaced by a bridge. Photo by Carinya Sharples/Mongabay.According to Vaughn, the rehabilitation of the road will include replacing the current all-weather laterite surface (laterite is a clay-like material found along the highway), which he noted hasn’t always been maintained as well as it should have due to lack of proper funds and supervision. “We are moving towards making it asphalted concrete,” he said. “However laterite can still be used as a base course or sub-base material, once it passes all the tests.”Environmental impactWhen work on the original road began back in 1989, concerns about its potential impact were raised by certain groups, including Survival International and the Guyana Human Rights Association, according to an article in the 1994 edition of The Ecologist. In the piece, Malcolm Colchester, now a Senior Policy Advisor with Forest Peoples Programme, made a dire prediction: “The completion of the road will lead to the invasion of Guyana by landless settlers, miners, timber cutters, urban squatters and drug smugglers.”Despite such warnings from Colchester and others, exploring the potential environmental and social impacts of the road seemed to be low on the government’s priority list at the time.“No EIA [environmental impact assessment] or social surveys were carried out,” said Colin Edwards, who was responsible for government negotiations concerning the road at the time and now runs Rock View Lodge, a guesthouse located off the highway near Annai. He noted, however, that approval for the construction and routing of the road was obtained from local village councilors and officials, including then-Regional Chairman Patsy Fredericks and Annai District Toshao (or village leader) Sydney Allicock, now Guyana’s Minister of Indigenous Peoples Affairs.But fast-forward 28 years, and the picture has changed.“Engineers will need to consult with NGOs like Iwokrama and the NRDDB [North Rupununi District Development Board],” Edwards said. “Besides of course WWF and CI [Conservation International].” And thanks to Guyana’s Environmental Protection Act, passed in 1996, the government has a legal duty to do so.“Should the developer – in this case, the government Ministry of Public Infrastructure – find that the road is feasible and wish to proceed with the building of the road, an application must be made to the EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] for environmental authorization,” said Kemraj Parsram, executive director of the EPA.This application will require a feasibility report, detailed project summary, and most likely an environmental and social impact assessment.Vaughn doesn’t see this causing any serious headaches for the Ministry of Public Infrastructure.“In terms of the environmental aspect of it, I don’t think there’ll be many environmental issues along those [road] corridors,” he said. “We’re not working as a standalone agency; we have our EPA, we have the Guyana Geology and Mines Commission on board with us, we have the wildlife people on board … because these are some of the conditions that are laid down.”For a project of this scale, said Parsram, it is likely that permission will be granted in phases.A police checkpoint at Mabura Hill along the Linden-Lethem road. Plans are underway to asphalt the road from Linden to this point. Photo by Carinya Sharples/Mongabay.“The nature of this project would require that the EPA implement a monitoring schedule as it has done for other large-scale projects,” he said. He also emphasized the importance of public and non-governmental organizations, for example in reporting any bad environmental practices as the project progresses.However, while the environmental safeguards come across strong on paper, the reality is more complex. For starters, Guyana’s EPA is said to be sorely understaffed. According to an article last year in the local Stabroek News, an audit of the EPA published in 2016 found just 27 staff working in environmental management compliance – less than a third of the number said to be needed. This means that if the road’s developers fail to comply with the conditions of their permit, the EPA may struggle to carry out the necessary enforcements. Improving the quality of the road is also likely to increase other activities which partly fall under the EPA’s remit, such as illegal gold mining, logging, hunting and fishing.Under such a heavy workload, the EPA may have to rely more on local stakeholders and NGOs than even Parsram realizes.Protecting the wildlifeIn 1989, the same year that construction first began on the road, a 371,000-hectare reserve was established in Guyana. Since 1996, this forest has been managed by the Iwokrama Centre – including the 45-mile section of the Linden-Lethem road that falls within its boundaries. It’s hoped that Iwokrama’s community-centered approach will provide something of a model for how the newly rehabilitated road could be managed.“We have checkpoints at both ends,” said Adit Sharma, Iwokrama’s Monitoring Manager. “Management of the road and security also means collaboration with law enforcement agencies like GGMC [Guyana Geology And Mines Commission], police, the Ministry of Public Infrastructure, as well as community members, who are the people most affected by these things and we depend on them for information.”This multi-faceted approach has helped Iwokrama to hone in on illegal activity in the area including intercepting incidents of wildlife trafficking, ranging from songbirds and macaws to large mammals.“We apprehended a vehicle carrying a jaguar, a cub and a couple of other wild animals here,” Sharma said. “That was reported to the wildlife authority and dealt with accordingly.”Along the Linden-Lethem road with the Iwokrama Mountain range in the distance. Iwokrama means ‘place of refuge’ in the local indigenous Makushi language. Photo by Carinya Sharples/Mongabay.Iwokrama’s rangers also follow a biophysical monitoring framework on their patrols. This involves collecting data from wildlife sightings, bird transects, road kill, and roadside burrow pits; as well as monitoring water quality in the creeks and at road crosses.Because of the center’s considerable experience and database, Sharma feels Iwokrama is well placed to contribute to the road’s design – and he has a number of ideas about how to improve animal safety on the road including underpasses, overpasses and fences that funnel animals into a particular path.“These designs have been implemented in various parts of the world, so we’re not just talking airy-fairy things,” Sharma said. “We have a wonderful [clean] slate to work with because we’re pretty much at the start.”Without such safety considerations, increased road kill is inevitable. In collaboration with Conversation International Guyana, Panthera researcher Evi Paemelaere monitored a stretch of road in the Rupunini savannah and found the most common road kill to be foxes. However, she said, “The species that we feel is going to be most threatened by any improvements of that road in terms of road kill is the giant anteater, which is really bad because tourism depends also on [their] presence.”Already a threatened species, she explained, anteaters are slow at spotting danger, they don’t avoid the road and are slow reproducers – increasing the risk of population decline.This would explain why the species ranks high in mortality lists of roads, particularly where roads cross savannahs. Their slow reproduction rate makes it impossible to quickly replace the individuals killed, aggravating the risk of notable population declines.Paemelaere and her colleagues presented their findings to the Ministry of Infrastructure in March 2017, along with three key recommendations: good hunting regulations; zoning for separate stretches of road for animal and human use; and strong bridges to prevent erosion, avoid water pollution and provide more space for crossing. She notes with optimism that the ministry has purchased scales to weigh freight and ensure trucks are not overloaded.Other affected species could include the spider monkey. “They’re very sensitive to disturbance already,” she said. “How crossable is this road going to be for them?”Ultimately she feels that stronger enforcement action is needed, as well as more research by conservation agencies – ironically two things that may be made easier, and cheaper, by the improved road.“There’s a lot of information they’re missing, for example we don’t know very well which species may be avoiding the road and that’s a big issue because if they don’t cross at all then you create a genetic barrier,” Paemelaere said. “For conservation purposes that’s probably the worst that can happen.”Local knowhowOne way to capture more data along the road is community monitoring, and a project to encourage this is already in its second phase.“Over 50 young people have been trained in the use of smartphones and a simple reporting card to monitor their own resources,” said Vanda Radzik, an independent consultant and social activist. It’s just one of many ideas noted in the Indigenous Peoples Plan for the road, which Radzik produced as part of the 2012 IDB feasibility study. “In essence, what the plan focuses on is a community road zone – like a managed road corridor from Surama, the first village of Annai; down to Toka, which is the last of those communities of the North Rupununi that’s on the road.”A truck brings supplies from Georgetown along the Linden-Lethem road. The cost of bringing in goods to the villages lying off the road, mining camps or Lethem itself makes them more expensive than in the capital. Photo by Carinya Sharples/Mongabay.Other local suggestions documented in the plan include speed limits, speed bumps, and safe road crossings, barriers at the beginning and end of each road ‘zone’, an accident & emergency ward at Annai Hospital and ambulances at Kurupukari and Annai, and dedicated paths for walking and cycling to avoid accidents.  Adequate culverts under bridges or passages in fish-spawning areas, traffic police training for local young men and women, and a road-safety course have also been suggested.“At one of the meetings,” Radzik recalled, “the people said: ‘We don’t want the road to just be an ugly scar, because our landscape is so beautiful.’” Their proposal? A corridor of trees beginning where the forest becomes savannah.The critical task will be getting suggestions adopted by the EPA and other government agencies. This will involve contributing to public consultations, particularly concerning the EPA’s Environmental Social Impact Assessment of the planned road improvements.Despite concerns around everything from loss of indigenous culture and natural resources, to harmful “coastal influences” and increased trafficking of persons, there’s a sense that although progress is inevitable, the negative impacts don’t have to be. Increased domestic tourism, for one, could bring new sources of income.“With the cost of airline tickets, many Guyanese are not motivated to travel to the Rupununi,” said Candace Phillips of Visit Rupununi “With a better road, this [area] may see some growth.”The challenge will be in getting the balance right. Or as Minister Allicock – a long-standing champion of indigenous rights and culture, and the same former Toshao who once gave his nod to the construction of the road – is quoted as saying: “Let us prepare ourselves to use the road, wisely and well, so that the road does not use us.”Banner image: A truck brings supplies from Georgetown along the Linden-Lethem road. The cost of bringing in goods to the villages lying off the road, mining camps or Lethem itself makes them more expensive than in the capital. Photo by Carinya Sharples/Mongabay.Carinya Sharples is a Guyana-based foreign correspondent. You can find her on Twitter at @carinyasharplesFEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Genevieve Belmakercenter_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

read more